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Cumulative and Differential Effects of Early Child Care and Middle Childhood Out-of-School Time on Adolescent Functioning

Year Published: 2020

This study of 1,364 families followed children from birth through age 15 to examine how early life experiences affect adolescent development. The study found that participation in both early child care and out-of-school time activities during middle childhood were linked to higher reading comprehension and math achievement at age 15, suggesting an additive effect. Additionally, participation in more organized activities in the elementary years was associated with higher vocabulary scores at age 15 and greater social confidence. 

Evaluation of the Kentucky 21st Century Community Learning Centers Initiative: 2018-2019 Statewide Results

Year Published: 2020

A statewide evaluation of Kentucky’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) programs during the 2018-19 school year found that regular program attendees improved their math and reading/ELA grades from the fall to spring, and a majority reached proficient/distinguished on the Kentucky Performance Rating for Educational Progress (K-PREP). Based on teacher surveys, among those who needed to improve, an overwhelming majority of both elementary and high school students improved in academic performance, class participation, and homework completion. Students also reported benefits of the programs, including helping them complete their homework, get better grades, and challenge them to do their best. 

Hawaii Statewide Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program: School Year 2018-19

Year Published: 2020

A statewide evaluation of Hawaii’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) programs during the 2018-19 program year found students in the program made academic and behavioral gains. The percent of students who missed 15 or more days of school throughout the year was significantly less for 21st CCLC participants compared to non-participants. In addition, those who participated in 21st CCLC programs were more likely to meet or exceed proficiency in math and reading compared to non-participants.  

Hawaii Statewide Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program: School Year 2017-18 Evaluation Report

Year Published: 2019

A statewide evaluation of Hawaii’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) programs during the 2017-18 school year examined outcomes related to participants’ educational, social, and behavioral developments. Based on teacher reports, among students who participated in the program 30 days or more, 82 percent improved turning in the homework on time and classroom participation and 79 percent improved their behavior in class. Of the sub-grantees reporting on academic improvement, 69 percent of students regularly attending the program showed improvements in English and 72 percent saw gains in math based on teacher surveys. 

Alaska 21st Century Community Learning Centers Statewide Evaluation Report: Fiscal Year 2018

Year Published: 2019

A 2019 evaluation by Education Northwest of Alaska’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) afterschool programs found that students who participated more regularly in programs saw greater academic and behavioral gains. Teachers surveyed reported that an overwhelming majority of students attending the program for at least 60 days saw improvements in their academic performance (72 percent), participation in class (71 percent), and ability to persevere through challenges (66 percent), as well as their ability to form positive relationships with adults (70 percent) and work collaboratively with peers (68 percent).

Virginia Department of Education Evaluation of 21st Century Community Learning Centers 2017-2018

Year Published: 2019

A 2019 evaluation of Virginia’s 21st Century Community Learning Centers found that based on teacher-reported outcomes, an overwhelming majority of students improved their academic performance (63 percent), classroom behavior (70 percent), and homework completion and class participation (77 percent). Additionally, students indicated that the programs helped them get better grades, attend class regularly, behave in class, and “prepare for a job or career”. When comparing 21st CCLC students to non-attendees, students receiving special education services in the programs outperformed those not in programs. 

Montana State Evaluation Report 21st Century Community Learning Centers: 2017-18 Annual Report

Year Published: 2019

A 2019 evaluation of Montana’s 21st CCLC programs found that students participating in the programs made academic, behavioral, and social and emotional gains. Based on teacher reports, 95 percent of students participating in the programs maintained or improved their academic performance, and a majority of students improved their class participation (62 percent), homework completion (59 percent), and conflict resolution skills (59 percent). Overall, 98 percent of program participants advanced to the next grade level or graduated on time. Both students and parents reported overall positive perceptions of the program’s impact on engagement in learning.

Michigan 21st Century Community Learning Centers Evaluation: 2017-2018 Annual Report

Year Published: 2019

A statewide evaluation of Michigan’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) programs found that based on grades and surveys of teachers, students, and parents, students attending a program for at least 30 days (regular attendees) saw academic gains, as well as improvements in their behavior and engagement in school. Approximately half of students with room for improvement (defined as having a fall GPA below 3.0), saw grade improvement in math (52 percent) and English/language arts (51 percent) from fall to spring. Teacher surveys also reflected an improvement in classroom performance for behaviors such as turning in homework on time and participating in class (74 percent), as well as getting along with other students (79 percent). In addition, both students and parents reported overall positive perceptions of program impact on academic learning and behavior.  

Idaho State Department of Education 21st CCLC Statewide Program Evaluation 2017-2018

Year Published: 2019

A statewide evaluation of Idaho’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) programs found that, based on state assessment data, students attending a program for at least 30 days (regular attendees) saw improvements in their academic performance. 39.4 percent of regular program participants who had pre-and post-test scores improved from “not proficient” to “meets or exceeds proficiency” on the Idaho Reading Indicator (IRI) test for K-3rd graders, 13.5 percent improved on the Idaho Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) English/Language arts test, and 5 percent improved on the ISAT in math. Surveyed parents and students also expressed high satisfaction with 21st CCLC programming. For example, 82 percent of students surveyed agreed that they felt safe in the program and 91 percent of parents surveyed agreed that the 21st CCLC program benefited their child. 

21st Century Community Learning Centers 2017-2018 Program Year Statewide Evaluation (Colorado)

Year Published: 2019

A statewide evaluation of Colorado’s 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) programs during the 2017-18 school year found positive gains related to student participants’ academic performance, engagement in school, and school-day behavior. Teachers reported that among students regularly attending the program and who were in need of improvement, a strong majority improved their academic performance (71 percent), class participation (68 percent), motivation to learn (67 percent), relationships with peers (63 percent), classroom attentiveness (62 percent), homework completion (55 percent), and behavior in class (54 percent). Subgrantees were also surveyed and reported progress in meeting or exceeding their performance measure in enrichment (57 percent), STEM (61 percent), health and wellness (53 percent), and attendance (60 percent). 

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