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Year Published: 2020
This study of 1,364 families followed children from birth through age 15 to examine how early life experiences affect adolescent development. The study found that participation in both early child care and out-of-school time activities during middle childhood were linked to higher reading comprehension and math achievement at age 15, suggesting an additive effect. Additionally, participation in more organized activities in the elementary years was associated with higher vocabulary scores at age 15 and greater social confidence.
Scope of the Evaluation: National
Program Type: Afterschool
Location: Initial hospital visits were conducted at Little Rock, AR; Irvine, CA; Lawrence, KS; Boston, MA; Hickory, NC; Philadelphia, PA; Pittsburgh, PA; Charlottesville, VA; Seattle, WA; and Madison, WI
Grade level: Elementary School, Middle School, High School
Among the age 15 sample, there was an even split between males and females. 77% were European American, 12% were African American, and 6% were Latino/a.